I’m placing the F-Holes on the Stainer model, to do so I first tried following the paper written by Alvin King “The Cremonese System for Positioning the F-Holes“.
His method includes Amati models, which should be similar to Stainer, but the layout did not work for the Stainer model. Mostly due to the shortness of Stainer’s f-holes and the length of his top bout.
In the end I set the f-holes based on The Strad poster measurements, a safe upper eye-width, and a comfortable notch location with respect to the stop location.
A “Violin knife” refers to a traditional tool used in both violin making and in broader luthier and wood working. The basic violin knife is a long relatively narrow piece of tool steel sharpened with an angled ‘blade’ at one end, double beveled and inserted in a removal wooden sleeve handle. What the knife is used for varies on the width of the steel, the angle of the blade portion and the bevel angle.
The blade portion can be made by tempering any high carbon steel, or ready made blades can be purchased from suppliers like Pfeil or Hock. The handles typically are separate and can easily be made in the workshop.
The size of the knife describes the width of the stock. Because the blade can be moved forward in the handle it can have a very long working life, making it an economical tool.
A cradle is very useful for working on assembled instruments. Tasks like setting sound posts are easier and less prone to damaging an instrument when the instrument is held in a cradle.
The cradle is no more than a thick piece of wood (or in this case several sheets of inexpensive plywood) hollowed on one side to fit the back of an instrument and lined with cork or leather. Its also helpful to put something on the bottom to keep the jib from slipping on a bench.
Aside: I keep my setup tools in the old cigar box pictured below. This are nice boxes and can be found fairly cheap. Most cigar stores will have a pile and only charge $5 or $10 for the nicest ones, sometimes less.
Check out the latest videos from Davide Sora. Davide’s videos are fantastic demonstrations of tried and true violin making.
His latest is a set of 23 videos on making a violin scroll. You can find this list and indexes of his other videos on my Best Practices page in the Resource section.
Also he’s made a time-lapse of making the scroll from neck block to finished product in 3 minutes and 15 seconds. Check it out!
There is a saying in violin making that it takes about only a few years to learn the basics of constructing instruments, but it takes the rest of your life you learn varnishing. A UV Varnish Drying cabinet can speed up the entire finishing process.
Traditional oil varnishes are a combination of drying oil (for example, walnut or linseed), a resin (for example, copal or amber), and a thinner. While initial drying of varnish is accomplished by the evaporation of the thinner, the curing of the varnish is a chemical process; the varnish alters at an molecular level. The curing, or polymerization, of the varnish is accelerated by UV light. Alcohol based varnishes, notably used in the French tradition after the Cremona golden period, do not require this method. Based on my research, I’m certain that the Cremonese makers used oil varnish.
Tanning instruments (both in the white and after coats of varnish) is a common technique in violin making. Exposure to artificial UV light effectively replaces exposure to sunlight. This is useful in areas which have lower sunlight exposure due to winter, or where exposure to direct sunlight isn’t practical (the glass in household windows blocks a large portion of UV light). Aside from curing varnish, sunlight is also used to ‘tan’ an instrument which darkens the flaming of maple.
CAUTION: exposure to UV light causes cataracts and skin cancer, just like over exposure to the sun. The bulbs I recommend below should be fairly safe for short period of exposure, but its best to avoid prolonged exposure.
The UV cabinet is a tool which provides a way to accelerate the exposure of the instrument to UV both for tanning of the bare wood, and accelerating the curing of the varnish between coats. An instrument may be tanned for one or multiple weeks, while varnish exposed to UV will cure overnight.
A simple, cost effective method of building a UV cabinet is the steel can cabinet. Not glamorous :), but certainly low cost and functional. This consists of a galvanized steel rubbish bin or garbage can, with UV florescent lights mounted vertically inside the can. A small amount of electrical expertise is required.
A vee-board is very useful for fine fret saw work, such as for rough cutting the f-holes, I also find it quite useful for work where the edge of plate (belly or back) needs to overhang, such as using a purfling marker or cutter, or filing edges to shape.
The Art of Violin Making by Chris Johnson and Roy Courtnall, first published in 1999, is a step by step guide for making a violin based on traditional methods with an inside mold. One of the most popular books on making, its also a great shop reference for the new maker, and my personal go-to book on violin making.
The book’s primary focus is the process of making a violin using traditional (non-power tool) methods. It has brief overviews on historical and modern makers, tools and sharpening, material selection and glue use, and sound adjustment, but does not delve into detail in this matters.
With about 400 illustrations over 253 pages, including a few color examples of violins from historic makers, and many black and white pictures of the making process, it has plenty of graphic references for the reader.
The book is separated into these sections:
- Part I The Violin Makers
- Part II The Maker’s Workshop
- Part II Violin Construction
- Sound Adjustment
- Appendices: Technical terms, Metric/imperial conversion, Suppliers, Collection
Part I The Violin Makers
A 16 page write and color pictures of violins from significant historical and modern makers. The historical section includes chapters on the Amati Family, Antonio Stradivari, the Guarneri family, and Jacob Stainer. In the contemporary section there are bios and opinions on violin making from Paul Bowers, Glen Collins, John Dilworth, Roger Hargrave, Patrick Jowett, and Patrick and Andrea Robin-Frandsen.
Part II The Maker’s Workshop
This part of the book focuses on the workshop, tools and materials. As noted above the method of making in this book focuses on traditional hand-tool focused making of instruments.
This section first touches on the working environment, lighting and humidity control. Then goes on to document the tools needed for making an instrument by hand (without power tools), breaking them into common woodworking tools and specialized violin making tools. The specialized tools include a description of each. A brief section on sharpening follow, as well as short sections on types and selection of materials (such as tonewood). Lastly this section includes a brief section on hide glue and its use.
Part III Violin Construction
This section comprises the bulk of the book, about 170 pages. It goes through a step by step process of making a violin utilizing an inside mold right from preparing the mold to varnishing the violin. Of course there is no substitute for hands on instruction, but this guide is a great aid and reference. Plenty of illustrations demonstrate the steps, jigs and tools and critical dimensions.
This three page section was written by Gerald Botteley and discusses instrument setup, particularly the bridge and soundpost.
This section contains a list of Technical terms, tables for Metric/imperial conversion, Addresses of materials, tools suppliers and journals, and finally a collections of instruments around the world.
This swivel cradle is ideal for edge fluting. The cradle rotates in a vice. It’s designed so that tightening the vice locks the rotation of the jig.
The jig is also useful for final shaping and finishing. The jig is hollowed so that the inside of plates can be worked as well.
The four corner holders are lined with cork and are slotted so that they can fit a variety of plate sizes.